Artemova Serafima Nikolaevna, Candidate of geographic sciences, associate professor, sub-department of geography, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Ukhanova Ol'ga Mikhaylovna, Senior methodologist, Office of international education, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), email@example.com
Background. The environmental situation in the regions has evolved throughout the history of interaction of population and nature. The study of the process of economic development of the regions provides the key to solving the current environmental problems. The authors analyzed he geo-ecological economic development of the Penza region to optimize natural resources and spatial planning.
Materials and methods. The study of the history of economic development of the Penza region was based on the systematic approach and methods of historical landscape science. The process of economic development of the Penza region is divided into 2 stages and 4 periods. The criterion for allocation of time slices is the degree of development of the landscape, which is revealed through the intensity of their use and ecological balance maintenance.
Results. In the early stages the economic development of the landscape of the Penza region largely depended on the the natural conditions and resources. An important milestone in stage shifts of economic development of the landscape in the Penza region was the change of climate and landscapes, which entailed changes in the economy. In general, the human activity harmoniously fit into the landscape structure. First, people developed river valleys, and the boundaries of land parcels were determined by natural geosystems’ boundaries. The earliest settlements were in the valley of the Moksha River. Economic development in the period from the XVII to the middle of the XIX century was of a geographically localized nature. The most significant changes occured in the landscape of the early XIX century in connection with the requisitioning – consolidation of parcels and destruction of natural complexes of small-rank facies by “plowing”. Subsequent conversion went in the direction of integration of management units and destruction of small natural geosystems. In general, for 300 years the forest land in the Penza region decreased 2 times. Economic development is gradually losing its focal character, the geo-ecological situation is aggravating.
Conclusions. As a result of the economic process, there has been not only a reduction of forests, but the landscape structure has also been simplified due to “plowing”of hollow-deep facies and other forms of management. The most active process of economic development were subjected to meadow-steppe complexes of forest-steppe landscapes, confined to a wavy surface with valley slopes with fertile leached chernozems under meadow or meadow steppes and their neighborhood deciduous forests with dark gray forest soils and podzolized chernozems. It is necessary to carry out planning activities for the landscapes management taking into account environmental problems of the territory.
process of economic development, geo-ecological analysis, study of natural geosystems history of landscape, paleolandscapes, spore-pollen analysis, allotment, plan of General Land Survey, Penza region, optimization of natural resources.
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